Department Of Physiology (Former Heads)

Former Head

ဇီဝကမၼေဗဒဌာန၏ ပထမဦးဆံုးပါေမာကၡ/ဌာနမွဴးမွာပါေမာကၡ ျဖဴျဖဴခင္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ပါေမာကၡေဒါက္တာျဖဴျဖဴခင္သည္ ေဆးတကၠသုိလ္(၂)ရန္ကုန္၊ ဇီဝကမၼေဗဒဌာန၊ တြဲဖက္ပါေမာကၡ ရာထူးမွ ေဆးတကၠသိုလ္(ေတာင္ႀကီး) ဇီဝကမၼေဗဒဌာနပါေမာကၡ/ဌာနမွဴး ရာထူးသို့ တိုးျမင့္ခန္႕ထားျခင္းခံရၿပီး ၂၀၁၆ခုႏွစ္၊ ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီလ (၁၆)ရက္ေန႕မွစ၍ ယေန႕အထိပါေမာကၡ/ဌာနမွဴး လုပ္ငန္းတာဝန္မ်ားကိုထမ္းေဆာင္ခဲ့ပါသည္။

Dr Phyu Phyu Khin

Name : Prof. Dr. Phyu Phyu Khin
Rank : Professor /  Head
Degree : M.B.,B.S, M.Med.Sc( physiology), Dip:Med.ED
Phone : 09-965032445
E-mail address : dr.phyu2khin@gmail.com

Department Of Physiology (Academic Staffs)


Name : Dr. Khine Cho Myint
Rank : Lecturer
Degree : M.B.,B.S, M.Med.Sc (physiology)
Phone : 09-5180313
E-mail address :  kcmmyint@gmail.com


Name : Dr. Nang Kay Thi Myint Aung
Rank : Assistant Lecturer
Degree : M.B.,B.S,M.Med.Sc(physiology)
Phone : 09-401560936, 09-974138048
E-mail address : nangmokham2014@gmail.com


Name : Dr. Htwe Nandar
Rank : Assistant Lecturer
Degree : M.B.,B.S, M.Med.Sc (physiology)
Phone : 09-5103628, 09-96326024
E-mail address : htwenandar123@gmail.com

Name : Dr. Nay Chi Nway
Rank : Assistant Lecturer
Degree : M.B., B.S, M.Med.Sc (Physiology)
Phone : 09.254219707
E-mail address :  dr.naychinway19@gmail.com

Name : Dr. Maung Maung Kyaw
Rank : Demonstrator
Degree : M.B., B.S
Phone : 09.43047601
E-mail address : drmgmgkyaw@gmail.com

Name : Dr. May Thu Khine
Rank : Demonstrator
Degree : M.B., B.S
Phone : 09.796123671
E-mail address : may.thu.khine08@gmail.com

Name : Dr. Phyu Sin Thwin
Rank : Demonstrator
Degree : M.B., B.S
Phone : 09.799866454
E-mail address : Japanmoetain@gmail.com

Name : Dr. Wint Thiri Toe
Rank : Demonstrator
Degree : M.B., B.S
Phone : 09.43119489
E-mail address : wintthiri.wt@gmail.com

Name : Dr. Shwe Yi Win
Rank : Demonstrator
Degree : M.B., B.S
Phone : 09.5215761
E-mail address : repunzelshweyi2014@gmail.com


Name : Daw Hsu Inzali
Rank : Lab boy -5
Degree :
Phone : 09. 252784216, 09.796698695
E-mail address :

Name : U Myo Min San
Rank :  Cleaner
Degree :
Phone : 09.250787226, 09.448591462
E-mail address :  aungmoemyinttg@gmail.com

Name : Daw Sae Tin
Rank :  Cleaner
Degree :
Phone : 09. 781040264
E-mail address :

2016-2017 Academic Year

I. Teaching hours
Teaching hours available for 2nd MBBS Course :
Total = 665 hours
1. Breakdown of teaching hours :
Lectures = 295
Tutorials = 195 607 hours
Practicals = 117
2. Class tests(4 in number) + Practical Test:
Theory (MCQ & MSQ),Practical 58 hours
Grand Total 665 hours
II. The Specific Instructional Objectives
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Introduction to Physiology
1. define physiology and outline the functions of various systems of the body
2. outline the interaction of man and his external environment
3. define “internal environment”
4. state the fluid compartments of the body
5. define homeostasis
6. name the quick and slow components of homeostatic mechanisms
7. explain the significance of homeostasis
8. state the optimal temperature, pH and osmolality for most of the body cells
9. define stimulus
10. define negative feedback
11. state the examples of negative feedback mechanisms
12. state the significance of negative feedback mechanisms in homeostasis
13. define positive feedback
14. state the examples of positive feedback mechanisms
15. state the significance of negative feedback mechanisms in homeostasis
16. state the major cations and anions of various body fluid compartments
17. state normal plasma osmolarity and osmolality
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Cell Physiology
1. define cell
2. state the chemical composition of cell
3. enumerate the membranous and nonmembranous cellular organelles
4. draw and label a hypothetical cell
5. outline the structure of mitochondria
6. describe the structure of cell membrane
7. state the functions of nuclear and cytoplasmic organelles
8. describe the functions of cell membrane
9. list the cell membrane proteins and their functions
10. (a) enumerate, define and describe the active transport and passive transport mechanisms
(b) state the differences between Primary and Secondary active transport mechanisms.
11. state the functions of Na+ – K+ ATPase
12. classify the ionic channels in cell membrane according to gating
13. define:
(a) tonicity
(b) hypotonic solution
(c) hypertonic solution
(d) isotonic solution
(e) haemolysis
(f) osmolality
14. state the different types of intercellular communications and their significances
15. state the changes in cell structure and function of RBC and tissue cell with changes in
cell environment viz. temperature, pH, osmotic pressure
16. state the strengths of isotonic dextrose and saline solutions
17. state the normal values of osmolality and osmolarity of plasma
18. state the different types of intercellular connections and the significances of each
19. list the ATPases involved in primary active transport
20. explain Fick’s law of diffusion
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Physiology of Blood
1. define
(a) blood
(b) plasma
(c) serum
2. list the general functions of blood
3. list the components of blood
4. list the physical properties of blood
5. state the normal values of
(a) total blood volume
(b) plasma volume
(c) packed cell volume
(d) RBC count
(e) haemoglobin concentration
(f) ESR ( Westergren method)
(g) total and differential WBC count
(h) platelet count
(i) bleeding time
(j) clotting time
(k) osmotic fragility
6. state the physiological variations of blood volume
7. state the shape and size ( diameter) of RBC
(a) in circulation
(b) during transit through the capillaries
8. outline the formation of RBC
9. state the sites of erythropoiesis in different ages of life
10. describe the control of erythropoiesis
11. list the functions of
(a) RBC
(b) haemoglobin
12. list the physiological variations of RBC count
13. state the life span of RBC
14. explain why the size of RBCs increase in B12 and folic acid deficiency
15. outline the fate of RBC (haemoglobin breakdown )
16. define jaundice and outline the physiological basis of jaundice
17. define ESR and state the importance of ESR
18. state the factors influencing ESR
19. list the physiological and pathological variations of ESR
20. define PCV
21. state the conditions that cause absolute and relative changes in PCV
22. define anaemia and describe the physiological basis of anaemia
23. classify different types of WBC
24. state the morphology and properties of each WBC
25. outline sites and stages of formation of different types of WBC
26. outline the control of leucopoiesis
27. describe the functions of neutrophil and lymphocyte
28. explain the terms
(a) diapedesis
(b) chemotaxis
(c) opsonization
29. state the functions of different types of WBCs
30. outline the development of the immune system
31. define cellular and humoral immunity and state the significance of each
32. state the life span of neutrophil and monocyte
33. state the effects of HIV infection on immune system
34. list the physiological and pathological variations of WBC count
35. outline the fate of WBC
36. state the morphology of platelets
37. outline the formation of platelets
38. list the chemical substances released by the activated platelets
39. recall the factors controlling the formation of platelets
40. state the properties of platelets
41. state the lifespan and fate of platelets
42. describe the role of platelets in haemostasis
43. describe the functions of platelets and correlate them to their properties
44. list the physiological variations of platelet count
45. define haemostasis
46. name the 4 main systems concerned with haemostasis
47. define coagulation of blood
48. list the coagulation factors and the common synonyms
49. list the coagulation factors synthesized in the liver
50. list the coagulation factors that are vitamin K dependent
51. outline the steps in the formation of temporary haemostatic plug
52. outline the steps in coagulation of blood
[outline the process of blood coagulation in a test tube ( glass container) ]
53. define anticoagulants and name the anticoagulants that can be used
(a) in vitro only
(b) in vivo only
(c) both in vivo and in vitro
54. list the anticoagulants commonly used in laboratory and state the mechanism of action
55. outline the mechanism of activation of the fibrinolytic system
56. state the importance of the fibrinolytic system
57. state the effects of platelet disorders on haemostasis
58. state the effects of deficiency of clotting factors on haemostasis
59. list the tests for haemostasis
60. state the information given by the following tests
(a) bleeding time
(b) clotting time
(c) one stage prothrombin time
(d) thromboplastin generation test
61. explain the term “consumption coagulopathy” and state two common causes
62. tabulate the antigens and antibodies in the ABO blood group system
63. work out the problems concerning the paternal and child dispute
64. state the clinical and medicolegal importance of blood groups
65. name the most antigenic antigen of the Rh blood group
66. state the prevalence of Rh positivity in Caucasians and Asians
67. list five common blood group systems
68. describe the consequences of incompatible blood transfusion
69. explain the effect of Rh incompatibility in pregnancy
70. list the components of the macrophage system
71. state the functions of the macrophage system
72. list the absolute indices of RBCs and state their formula and normal values
73. state the sites of extramedullary erythropoiesis in adult life
74. state the most prevalent and least prevalent ABO blood groups in Myanma
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
1. define
(a) excitability
(b) stimulus
(c) resting membrane potential
(d) nerve impulse
(e) muscle twitch
(f) tetanic contraction
(g) isotonic contraction
(h) isometric contraction
(i) motor unit
(j) threshold stimulus
(k) chronaxie.
2. state the relationship between
(a) excitability and threshold
(b) electrical properties of the membrane and summation of subthreshold
3. state the importance of chronaxie.
4. state the significance of
(a) myelination of nerves
(b) prolonged repolarization in the cardiac muscle.
5. state the different parts of a neurone and the functions of each.
6. state the numerical and alphabetical classification of nerve fibres and their functions.
7. state nerve fibre types most sensitive to
(a) local anaesthetics
(b) pressure
(c) hypoxia.
8. state the effects of extracellular ionic changes (K+, Na+, Ca2+) on excitable tissues.
9. state the functions of sarcotubular system.
10. state “All-or-None Law” and tissues obeying that law.
11. explain the terms
(a) polarization (b) depolarization
(c) hyperpolarization (d) repolarization
(e) anelectrotonic potential (f) catelectrotonic potential
(g) local response (h) electrotonic depolarization
(i) prepotential (j) latent peroid
(k) absolute refractory period (l) relative refractory period
(m)subliminal stimulus (n) spatial summation
(O) temporal summation.
12. sketch, label and explain the
(a) strength-duration curve
(b) monophasic action potential of a neurone
(c) action potential of cardiac pacemaker tissue
(d) action potential of cardiac ventricular muscle
(e) action potential of a representative myelinated spinal motor neurone
(f) neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle.
13. describe the ionic basis of
(a) the resting membrane potential of neurone
(b) catelectrotonic potential
(c) local response
(d) action potential of a neurone
(e) prepotential
14. describe the mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse in
(a) myelinated nerve
(b) unmyelinated nerve.
15. describe the molecular basis of contraction and relaxation of a skeletal muscle.
16. describe the process of neuromuscular transmission in a skeletal muscle.
17. list the types of muscle contraction and give real-life situations where each type of muscle contractionis represented.
18. give normal value of resting membrane potential of
(a) spinal motor neurone
(b) ventricular muscle
(c) pacemaker tissue.
19. outline the neuromuscular junction in the cardiac and smooth muscle.
20. explain ( in general ) the ionic basis of
(a) depolarization
(b) repolarization
(c) hyperpolarization.
21. state the differences between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle as regards
(a) excitation-contraction coupling
(b) ionic basis of contraction.
22. state the characteristics of
(a) cardiac muscle
(b) visceral smooth muscle.
23. state the differences between skeletal muscle and smooth muscle as regards
(a) excitation-contraction coupling
(b) molecular basis of contraction.
24. give 2 examples each for isotonic and isometric contractions.
25. state the 2 main differences between local and action potentials.
26. state the terms used for local potential in
(a) receptor
(b) neurone
(c) postsynaptic neurone
(d) motor end-plate
(e) cardiac muscle
(f) smooth muscle.
27. state the main energy source for
(a) skeletal muscle
(b) cardiac muscle.
28. outline the functional anatomy of synapse.
29. state the electrical events at chemically mediated synapses.
30. state the chemical transmission at synapses.
31. state the ionic basis of EPSP and IPSP.
32. state the excitability changes during different phases of action potential.
33. state the role of Acetylcholine esterase in the neuromuscular transmission.
34. state the effects of
(a) curare
(b) calcium channel blocker
(c) acetylcholine esterase inhibitor.
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
The Autonomic Nervous System(ANS)
1. define
(a) autonomic nervous system
(b) sensory receptor
(c) adrenergic receptor
(d) cholinergic receptor
(e) cholinergic neurone
(f) adrenergic neurone
(g) reflex arc
2. draw and label a reflex arc
3. outline
(a) the general organization of the ANS
(b) the afferent pathways of the ANS
(c) sympathetic outflow
(d) parasympathetic nervous system
4. compare the organizational and functional aspects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
5. name three major differences between the ANS and the somatic nervous system
6. enumerate the levels of integration in the ANS
7. name the neurotransmitters of the ANS and their respective sites of release
8. describe the role of neurotransmitters in the ANS
9. give three examples of
(a) sensory receptor
(b) adrenergic receptor
(c) cholinergic receptor
10. enumerate the levels of integration in the ANS.
11. give three examples each of responses of α and β receptors to catecholamines
12. enumerate responses of effector organs to sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation
13. state the general functions of parasympathetic system
14. describe the physiological responses to emergency situations
15. outline the synthesis, release and degradation of acetylcholine/noradrenaline
16. explain the terms “muscarinic” and “nicotinic” effects of acetylcholine giving an example of each
17. state the effects of “alpha blockers” and “beta blockers”.
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Cardiovascular system (CVS)
1. name the components of the circulatory system
2. recall the functional organization of the CVS
3. state the basic function and the general functions of the CVS
4. state the functions of
(a) the heart
(b) the arterial system
(c) the aorta
(d) the arterioles
(e) the capillaries
(f) the venous system, and
(g) the lymphatic system
5. state the differences between the systemic and the pulmonary circulations
6. list and define the properties of the heart muscle and correlate them to the function of the heart as a pump
7. describe the conducting system of the heart
8. define heart beat and describe the origin of the heart beat
9. explain why the sinoatrial node is the pacemaker of the heart
10. explain the significance of the slope of prepotential on heart rate and the effects of acetylcholine and noradrenaline on the slope
11. describe, with diagram, the spread of cardiac excitation
12. state the significance of AV nodal delay
13. define ECG; draw and label normal ECG
14. explain why it is possible to record potential changes of the heart from the body surface
15. state the causes of the waves and complexes of the ECG
16. list the leads routinely used in recording ECG
17. list the various intervals, durations and segments of the ECG and correlate them with electrical events of the heart
18. calculate heart rate and examine rhythm from ECG record
19. state the uses of ECG
20. define
(a) cardiac cycle
(b) systole, and
(c) diastole
21. calculate the duration of cardiac cycle from the given heart rate and vice versa
22. state the durations of atrial and ventricular systoles and diastoles for a cardiac cycle of 0.8 s duration
23. state the significance of an adequate diastolic period
24. state the relationship between the changes in heart rate and the lengths of systolic and diastolic periods
25. state the phases of cardiac cycle
26. describe (with the help of a diagram), the sequence of electrical and mechanical events in a cardiac cycle and their correlation
27. list the heart sounds and state the characteristics and genesis of each sound
28. define:
(a) stroke volume,
(b) end-diastolic ventricular volume
(c) end-systolic ventricular volume
(d) ejection fraction, and give the normal values under resting conditions
29. define arterial pulse and draw and label the record of the arterial pulse
30. name the sites where arterial pulse can be examined
31. state the information that can be obtained by examination of the arterial pulse
32. define central venous pressure (CVP) and state the causes of a, c, and v waves
33. state the influence of respiratory fluctuations on the CVP
34. state the normal value for CVP
35. state information that can be obtained from examination of jugular venous pulse and pressure and from monitoring of the CVP
36. describe parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation of the heart
37. define cardiac output and cardiac index and give normal values for an average sized man in the supine position under resting conditions
38. state the effects of various conditions (change in posture, eating, sleeping, physical exercise, emotions, pregnancy) on cardiac output
39. state the equation relating cardiac output to heart rate and stroke volume
40. state the normal heart rate and its physiological variations
41. describe the control of heart rate
42. define vagal tone and describe the effects of vagal (parasympathetic) discharge on the heart
43. define sympathetic tone and state the effects of sympathetic discharge on the heart
44. explain the balance of vagal and sympathetic effects on the resting heart rate
45. list the factors acting
(a) directly, and
(b) reflexly on SA node and state their effects on the heart rate
46. define, with regards to the heart,
(a) heterometric regulation,
(b) homeometric regulation,
(c) preload, and
(d) afterload, and give an example of each
47. state “Starling’s law of the heart”
48. list and describe the factors affecting end-diastolic volume
49. draw a graph (curve) which describes the application of Frank-Starling law to ventricular performance
50. list and describe the factors influencing myocardial contractile state
51. describe regulation of cardiac output
52. state the effects of training on
(a) heart rate
(b) stroke volume
(c) end- systolic ventricular volume, and the significance of these effects
53. explain the terms resistance and capacitance vessels, and high- pressure and low-pressure systems
54. relate the velocity of blood flow to the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels
55. state the average normal arm to tongue circulation time
56. explain why the blood flow is continuous in the arterial system throughout the cardiac cycle
57. define
(a) blood pressure
(b) systolic arterial blood pressure
(c) diastolic arterial B.P.
(d) pulse pressure
(e) mean arterial pressure and state the formulae for calculating (d) and (e).
58. state the normal systemic arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures) of a supine adult at rest
59. explain the principle underlying the indirect (auscultatory and palpatory) methods of measuring systemic arterial blood pressure
60. state the physiological variations in systemic arterial blood pressure
61. relate the arterial blood pressure to cardiac output and total peripheral resistance (TPR)
62. state Poiseuille-Hagen formula and its application in regulating blood flow, blood pressure and resistance to blood flow
63. define “vascular tone” and state its relation to
(a) arterial blood pressure and
(b) capillary blood flow
64. outline the nerve supply of blood vessels
65. list the local and systemic regulatory mechanisms influencing vascular tone
66. explain the term “autoregulation” regarding blood flow and name 3 vascular beds in which autoregulation is well developed
67. state myogenic theory of autoregulation
68. list vasodilator metabolites and explain metabolic theory of autoregulation
69. list the hormones produced by the endothelium and state the actions of each
70. state the effect of local temperature on vascular tone
71. state the effects of vasopressin, angiotensin II, catecholamines, acetylcholine, serotonin, kininsand atrial natriuretic peptide on vascular tone
72. state the effect of sympathetic discharge on blood vessels
73. outline the location and organization of the vasomotor centre
74. list the inputs to the vasomotor centre and state their effects
75. define / list / classify the baroreceptors of CVS
76. name arterial baroreceptors and state their responses to arterial blood pressure changes
77. name the buffer nerves
78. state the blood pressure range to which arterial baroreceptors are responsive
79. outline the feedback control mechanism for stabilizing B.P.
80. compare the roles of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous sytems in B.P. homeostasis
81. describe B.P homeostasis and state the mechanism responsible for moment to moment regulation of B.P.
82. state the role of chemoreceptors and brain ischaemia in B.P. regulation
83. outline the mechanisms responsible for long-term regulation of B.P.
84. define “reflex bradycardia” and “reflex tachycardia”
85. list the cardiovascular reflexes and explain axon reflex
86. outline the cutaneous vascular response to skin injury
87. outline the architecture of microcirculation
88. state the functions of microcirculation
89. outline the exchange of substances across the capillary wall
90. explain “flow-limited exchange” and “diffusion-limited exchange”
91. describe the mechanism of interstitial fluid formation (with the help of an equation relating the amount filtered to its influencing factors)
92. state the magnitude of Starling forces along a typical muscle capillary
93. define oedema
94. list and state the factors favouring increased interstitial fluid formation
95. name the major constituents of lymph
96. state the importance of lymphatic circulation in maintaining interstitial fluid volume
97. state the factors influencing
(a) lymph flow and
(b) venous return
98. explain the importance of
(a) thoracic pump,
(b) skeletal muscle pump and
(c) gravity, in circulation
99. state the effects of pressure gradients between aorta and the ventricles on coronary blood flow
100. describe the chemical and neural factors affecting coronary blood flow
101. explain “reactive hyperaemia”
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Respiratory system
1. define: respiration, external respiration, and internal respiration
2. outline the processes involved in respiration
3. outline the functional organization of the respiratory system
4. correlate with diagram, the changes in intrapleural, intrapulmonary pressures and volumes relative to atmospheric pressure during inspiration and expiration
5. define and state normal adult values of
(a) the lung volumes,
(b) the lung capacities,
(c) pulmonary ventilation,
(d) alveolar ventilation,
(e) anatomic dead space,
(f) physiological dead space, and
(g) compliance of the lungs
(h) respiratory rate
6. state the condition in which physiological dead space can be increased
7. state the neural and chemical control of bronchial tone and its circadian rhythm
8. draw and label a spirogram of lung volumes and capacities and FEV1 in male and female
9. recall the respiratory function of mitochondria and relate the mitochondrial function and respiratory process
10. state the source, chemical nature, functions and importance of surfactant
11. recall gaseous composition of dry air
12. state the partial pressures of O2, CO2 in atmospheric air, inspired air, alveolar air, arterial blood, tissues, venous blood, and expired air
13. state the partial pressure of water vapour in expired air
14. outline the process of gas transfer between
(a) blood and lungs
(b) blood and tissues
15. list the layers that make up the alveolo-capillary membrane
16. list the factors affecting gas transfer
17. define “diffusion capacity of a gas”; state the normal values for O2 and CO2
18. state the normal pulmonary blood pressure and blood flow
19. explain “physiologic shunt” and state its significance
20. outline oxygen and carbondioxide transport
21. describe the nervous control of respiration
22. describe the chemical control of respiration
23. state the effects of changes in PO2, PCO2 and pH on chemoreceptors of respiration
24. state the functions of
(a) the upper respiratory tract,
(b) the lower respiratory tract,
(c) the respiratory system as a whole
25. state the non-respiratory functions of the respiratory system
26. outline lung defence mechanisms
27. explain, with a diagram, the work of breathing.
28. list the respiratory function tests
29. draw and label the spirogram illustrating the FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC in normal, obstructive airway disease and restrictive airway disease.
30. define FEV1 and state the normal forced expiratory time
31. compare the effects on local hypoxia on systemic and pulmonary vasculature
32. outline the influence of the following on respiration
(a) afferents from higher centres
(b) afferents from irritant receptors in the airways and lungs and from
(c) pulmonary stretch receptors and deflation receptors
(d) swallowing, vomiting
(e) straining
(f) sleep
33. list and explain different types of hypoxia
34. list the causes of hypoxic hypoxia
35. state the effect of ventilation-perfusion imbalance on blood gases
36. state the normal ventilation-perfusion ratios and its variation in the normal upright lung
37. define
(a) hypercapnia and hypocapnia
(b) cyanosis
(c) hyperpnoea
(d) tachypnoea
(e) dyspnoea
38. explain the terms
(a) breaking-point
(b) restrictive airway disease
(c) obstructive airway disease
39. describe the mechanics of pulmonary ventilation
40. outline the neural control of pulmonary
41. state the role of medullary and pontinecentres, vagus nerve and motor cortex in the control of respiration
42. state the effect of gravity on pulmonary ventilation and blood flow
43. explain the mechanism of coughing
44. explain why stimulation of respiration become pronounced only when arterial Po2 level falls below 60 mmHg
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Gastrointestinal physiology
1. state the general functions of the gastrointestinal system
2. outline the organization of the enteric nervous system
3. state the general effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neural activity on the gastrointestinal smooth muscle
4. state the functional significance of mastication
5. list the 3 principal salivary glands and state the characteristics of their secretions
6. list the constituents of saliva
7. describe the functions of saliva
8. outline the control of salivary secretion
9. list 3 cell types in the gastric glands, their distribution, and their respective secretions
10. list the constituents of gastric juice
11. state the phases of gastric secretion
12. describe the control of gastric secretion
13. state the different types of gastric motility and their importance
14. outline the control of gastric emptying
15. describe the functions of stomach
16. state the normal pH values of
(a) saliva
(b) gastric juice
(c) pancreatic juice
17. state the normal emptying time of stomach
18. list the constituents of
(a) pancreatic juice
(b) bile
(c) succusentericus
19. state the functions of
(a) pancreatic juice
(b) bile
(c) succusentericus
20. state the properties of bile salts
21. outline the control of
(a) exocrine functions of the pancreas
(b) biliary secretion
22. describe the different types of small intestinal movement
23. list the movements of the colon
24. describe the mechanism of defaecation and its control
25. outline the process of digestion of
(a) carbohydrate
(b) fat
(c) protein in the digestive tract
26. describe the absorption of
(a) carbohydrate
(b) fat
(c) protein
(d) water, vitamins and minerals in the gastrointestinal tract
27. state the functions of large intestine
28. state the physical characteristics of faeces
29. list the constituents of faeces
30. list gastrointestinal hormones
31. state the sites of release, stimuli for secretion, and actions of gastrin, secretin and
32. describe the intestinal handling of electrolytes
33. describe, with diagram, the mechanism of formation of HCI in the oxyntic cell (stomach)
34. state the gastric function tests and their usefulness
35. outline the process of deglutition and its control
36. outline the process of vomiting and state its importance
37. outline the control of small intestinal secretion and movement
38. state the tests for exocrine function of the pancreas
39. state the principal nutrients absorbed in the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon)
40. explain the terms:
(a) enterogastric reflex
(b) gastrocolic reflex
(c) myenteric reflex
(d) cholagogues
(e) choleretics
(f) micelle
(g) steatorrhoea
41. state the importance of secondary active transport of glucose in oral rehydration therapy
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Renal Physiology
1. enumerate the functions of the kidney
2. recall the structure of a nephron
3. correlate the structure of the different parts of the nephron to their function.
4. define “renal clearance”
5. state the formula for renal clearance
6. state the uses of renal clearance (with examples)
7. state the normal value for renal blood flow (RBF)
8. recall the percentage distribution of blood flow to the renal cortex and the medulla
9. outline the regulation of RBF and enumerate the conditions in which RBF is altered
10. state the significance of autoregulation of RBF
11. outline the process of urine formation
12. outline the process of glomerular filtration
13. define “glomerular filtration rate” (GFR) and state the normal value
14. state the equation which relates GFR with the factors governing filtration across the glomerular capillaries
15. enumerate the factors affecting GFR and explain their effects
16. outline the tubular transport mechanisms
17. describe renal handling of glucose
18. define
(a) threshold substance
(b) renal threshold
(c) transport maximum, and give an example of each
19. relate renal threshold to transport maximum (quantitatively, giving values for glucose)
20. describe renal handling of water
21. state the importance of countercurrent mechanisms in the process of urine concentration
22. enumerate the factors influencing concentrating power of the kidney
23. state the normal urine output and its circadian variation
24. define
(a) diuresis
(b) osmotic diuresis
(c) water diuresis, and
compare (b) and (c)
25. describe renal handling of sodium, potassium, H+, chloride, bicarbonate and urea
26. state the factors influencing renal handling of sodium and H+
27. state the physical and chemical characteristics of normal urine
28. name the pigment responsible for normal urine colour
29. describe the hormonal control of renal function
30. describe the endocrine functions of the kidney
31. summarize the homeostatic functions of the kidney
32. explain the term “urinary titratable acidity”
33. describe the mechanism of micturition
34. state the percentage distribution of body fluids in relation to body weight ( i.e., the size of body fluid compartments)
35. name the principal cations and anions of ECF and ICF and state the normal values of plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO-3 in SI units
36. state the sources of water gain and water loss in an adult man
37. list the causes of dehydration and water excess and their effect on the volume and tonicity of body fluid compartments
38. describe the regulation of water balance
39. outline the mechanisms regulating ECF volume and tonicity (osmolality)
40. state the normal hydrogen ion concentration and pH of plasma
41. name the defences against changes in ECF H+ concentration and describe the renal adjustments to these changes
42. state the formula for calculation of
(a) amount filtered
(b) net amount excreted
(c) urine flow rate
(d) blood volume from PCV.
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Skin and Thermoregulation
1. list (a) the functional layers of skin
(b) the skin appendages
2. state the
(a) general functions of skin
(b) functions of skin appendages
3. describe the
(a) protective and
(b) thermoregulatory functions of the skin
4. explain the terms :
(a) poikilotherms and
(b) homeotherms
5. recall the effect of temperature on the velocity of enzyme catalyzed reaction and relate it to homeothermy
6. recall the nerve supply of sweat gland
7. list the types of sweating
8. explain how sweating aids heat loss
9. state the value of latent heat of vaporization
10. explain
(a) core temperature and
(b) shell temperature
11. state the normal values of oral and rectal temperatures
12. state the sites where core temperature is represented
13. state the physiological variations in body temperature
14. state the physical means of heat transfer between the body and its environment
15. state the factors influencing the rate of evaporation of sweat
16. list the chemical means of heat production in the body and explain brown fat thermogenesis
17. define thermal balance
18. list and describe heat gain mechanisms
19. list and describe heat loss mechanisms
20. list the peripheral and central thermo-receptors and state their role in thermoregulation
21. state thermoregulatory centres concerned with
(a) heat loss and
(b) heat gain
22. describe the role of hypothalamus in thermoregulation
23. state the role of sympathetic nervous system in thermoregulation
24. state the role of vasomotor mechanisms in thermoregulation
25. state the role of somatic nervous system in thermoregulation
26. state the role of behavioural reflexes responses in thermoregulation
27. explain the thermoregulatory responses activated by
(a) anterior hypothalamus and
(b) posterior hypothalamus
28. name the calorigenic hormones and state their importance in thermoregulation
29. describe thew physiological responses to
(a) heat and
(b) cold
30. state the range of temperature compactible with life
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
1. define
(a) endocrine secretion
(b) hormone
(c) tropic hormone
(d) local hormone
(e) second messenger
(f) target organ / tissue
(g) prohormone
2. recall the different types ofintercellular communications (endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine)
3. list the neurosecretions which have endocrine function
4. compare the roles of endocrine and nervous systems in body homeostasis
5. state the interrelationships between the nervous and endocrine systems in maintaining body homeostasis
6. state the primary function of the endocrine system
7. state the body functions in which the endocrine system plays a major regulatory role
8. enumerate the hormone-secreting organs or tissues stating the respective secreted hormones
9. outline the cellular mechanisms of hormone action giving examples
10. recall the terms down regulation and up regulation
11. explain the following hormonal interactions ( giving one example each )
(a) inhibitory interaction
(b) synergistic interaction
(c) permissive interaction
12. state the chemical nature of hormone
13. outline the general features of degradation and excretion of hormones
14. list the principal mechanisms that control secretion of hormones (giving examples)
15. explain the term “the cerebro-hypothalamo-hypophyseal-target endocrine gland – target organ axis”
16. explain
(a) negative feedback mechanism
(b) positive feedback mechanism
17. list the hormones synthesized and secreted by the neurons of the hypothalamus
18. list the hypophyseotropic hormones and state the actions of each
19. name and state the nature of the links between the hypothalamus and
(a) the anterior pituitary
(b) the posterior pituitary
20. list the hormones of the anterior, middle and posterior lobes of the pituitary and state the principal actions of each
21. state the two principal effects of tropic hormones on the target glands
22. state the growth promoting effects of growth hormone
23. state the metabolic actions of growth hormone
24. outline the regulation of growth hormone secretion
25. state the effects of the following on growth hormone secretion
(a) circulating levels of glucose and amino acids
(b) stress ( mental and physical )
(c) sleep
(d) sex hormones (oestrogens and androgens )
26. state the effects of excess or deficiency of growth hormone secretion on body growth
before and after epiphyseal closure
27. explain the terms gigantism and acromegaly
28. state the sources and actions of lGF-1
29. explain the terms hyperglycaemic action and diabetogenic effect
30. describe the regulation of secretion of
(a) AVP
(b) oxytocin
31. state/describe the actions of
(a) AVP
(b) oxytocin
32. define neuroendocrine reflex and give 3 examples
33. state the actions of prolactin
34 state the effects of hyposecretion and hypersecretion of prolactin
35. list the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
36. outline the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones
37. explain the terms
(a) calorigenic action
(b) iodide trap
(c) goiter
(d) goitrogens
(e) cretin
(f) myxedema
38. list 3 common goitrogens
39. state the common cause of goitre in Myanmar
40. list and describe the actions of thyroid hormone
41. describe the feedback control of thyroid hormone secretion
42 explain how iodine deficiency leads to enlargement of thyroid gland
43. list the thyroid binding proteins and their physiological variations
44. state the effects of hypofunction and hyperfunction states of the thyroid gland
45. explain the terms stress and stressors
46. list the stress hormones
47. list the endocrine cell types of the endocrine pancreas and their respective hormones
48. state the principal actions of the hormones of the pancreas
49. state the tissues or organs in which insulin is not required for glucose entry
50. state the effects of insulin on
(a) blood glucose level
(b) blood potassium level
(c) circulating free fatty acids and triglyceride levels
51. explain the terms
(a) diabetes mellitus
(b) hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyuria
(c) osmotic diuresis
(d) diabetes insipidus
(e) diabetic ketoacidosis
(f) hyperglycemia
(g) glycosuria
(h) antiinsulin action
(i) diabetogenic action
52. state the normal values (in conventional and SI units ) for
(a) fasting blood glucose level
(b) two hours postprandial blood glucose level
53. list
(a) hyperglycaemic hormones
(b) hypoglycaemic hormones
(c) diabetogenic hormones
54. outline the regulation of secretion of
(a) insulin
(b) glucagon
55. outline the consequences of insulin deficiency
56. list the 3 calorigenic hormones in order of importance
57. list the hormones of the adrenal medulla
58. list the catecholamines
59. describe the sympathoadrenal axis
60. compare and contrast the cardiovascular actions of noradrenaline and adrenaline
61. state the actions of adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine
62. state the principal catecholamines secreted during
(a) familiar emotional stress
(b) unfamiliar emotional stress
63. list the different zones of the adrenal cortex and the principal hormones secreted by each zone
64. explain the terms “glucocorticoids” and “mineralocorticoids” and state the principal members of each group
65. describe the regulation of secretion of
(a) glucocorticoids
(b) mineralocorticoids
66. state the roles of ACTH and RAA system in the regulation of adrenocortical secretion
67. state the circadian variation in the secretion of hormones of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis
68. list the factors that increase CRH secretion
69. state the physiological actions of glucocorticoids
70. state the pharmacological and pathological effects of glucocorticoids
71. list 4 permissive actions of glucocorticoids
72. state the role of the adrenal gland in the body’s resistance to stress
73. explain the terms
(a) stress
(b) stressors
74. list the stress hormones
75. explain why the adrenal cortex is essential for life
76. state the effects of long term administration of glucocorticoids on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis
77. state the effects of prolonged increase in plasma glucocorticoids
78. state the underlying endocrine dysfunction in following conditions
(a) pheochromocytoma
(b) Addison’s disease
(c) Cushing’s syndrome
(d) Conn’s syndrome
79. list the 3 hormones that regulate plasma Ca2+ and state their sources and regulation of secretion, chemical nature and actions
80. state the normal range of plasma Ca2+ level in SI and conventional units
81. define tetany and explain the causes of tetany ( i.e. explain why hypocalcaemia causes
neuromuscular hyperexcitability )
82. explain why hypercalciuria occurs in hyperparathyroidism
83. state one common cause of hypoparathyroidism and its consequences
84. explain why hypercalciuria occurs in hyperparathyroidism
85. list the local hormones and their principal actions of each
86. recall the biosynthesis of prostaglandins
87. state the effect of low dose aspirin on synthesis of TXA2, PGI2, and leucotrienes; and its implications
88. state the physiological principles underlying endocrine function tests
89. diagrammatically illustrate the cardiovascular effects of circulating noradrenaline and adrenaline
90. describe the effects of hormones on growth and development
91. explain the pathophysiological basis of signs and symptoms of hormonal hypofunction and hyperfunction
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
Reproductive Physiology
1. state mean and range of
(a) age of onset of puberty in boys and girls
(b) age of menarche
(c) length of normal menstrual period
(d) length of human gestation period
(e) age of menopause
2. define
(a) gonads
(b) puberty
(c) adolescence
(d) menarche
(e) thelarche
(f) puberche
(g) adrenarche
(h) menopause
(i) climacteric
(j) luteolysis
(k) menstruation
(i) ovulation
3. state the 2 primary functions of gonads
4. list the accessory sex organs in
(a) male &
(b) female and state the functions of each
5. outline the sequence of events leading to puberty
6. describe the pubertal changes in
(a) boys
(b) girls
7. state the 3 main characteristics of puberty
8. explain the terms
(a) genetic or chromosomal sex
(b) gonadal sex
(c) genital sex
(d) psychological sex
9. outline the process of sex determination and differentiation
10. state the significance of reproductive function
11. state the differences between reproductive life of male and female
12. define the adolescent growth spurt and state its hormonal basis
13. state the functions of testes
14. state the site of spermatogenesis in testes and list the factors affecting it
( the influence of temperature and hormones )
15. state the optimal temperature for spermatogenesis and outline the mechanisms that maintain it
16. outline the process of spermatogenesis from the primitive germ cells to mature motile spermatozoa
17. state the functions of sertoli cells
18. outline the mechanisms that maintain the high local concentration of androgens in testes
19. state the
(a) normal sperm count and
(b) lower limit of fertility
20. state the 3 main functional components of spermatozoon and state the functions of each
21. define semen; list 5 constituents of seminal plasma and state their actions
22. state the characteristics of human semen
23. name the hormones secreted by the Leydig cells and sertoli cells of the testes during
(a) embryonic life
(b) adult life
24. list the 3 principal androgens
25. state the actions of androgens in foetus and in adult
26. state the 2 main actions of androgens
27. compare the actions of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone
28. describe the control of spermatogenesis
29. describe the control of endocrine function of testes
30. describe the control of testicular function
31. explain the term hypothalamo-hypophyseal-testicular axis and its functional significance
32. list the gonadotropins and list their actions
33. state the functions of the ovaries
34. describe the endometrial cycle
35. outline
(a) ovarian cycle and
(b) myometrial cycle
36. state the effects of hormones on myometrial excitability and contractility
37. define oxytocics; name 2 oxytocics
38. define menstrual cycle; list the cyclical phenomena of the menstrual cycle
39. explain the terms:
(a) conception
(b) contraception
(c) amenorrhoea (d) withdrawal bleeding
(e) foetoplacental unit
(f) parturition
(g) colostrum
40. state the changes in cervical mucus and vaginal smear during menstrual cycle
41. state the changes in basal temperature during the menstrual cycle
42. describe the neuroendocrine control of the menstrual cycle
43. state the effects of emotional factors on menstrual cycle
44. draw a diagram depicting the relative concentration of following hormones during the menstrual cycle : estradiol, progesterone, FSH, LH
45. list the 3 principal oestrogens
46. state the sources and actions of oestrogens in the follicular fluid
47. state the feedback effects of (a) oestrogen levels and (b) progesterone levels on gonadotropin secretion
48. state the hormonal prerequisite for ovulation
49. state the endometrial prostaglandin levels during menstrual cycle
50. state the indicators of ovulation
51. state the meaning of the terms:
(a) oestrus and
(b) gestation
52. state the fate of corpus luteum
(a) in the absence of fertilization and
(b) in the presence of fertilization
53. name the hormones whose levels progressively rise during pregnancy
54. state the secretory pattern of hCG during pregnancy
55. state the earliest time when the hCG can be detected in blood and urine
56. state the effects of sex hormones on linear growth of bones
57. state the sources of oestrogens, progesterone and relaxin
58. state the role of oestrogens, progesterone and relaxin in reproduction
59. state the order of formation of the followings in steroidogenesis: cholesterol, progesterone, androgen, oestrogens
60. state the functions of placenta
61. state the hormones secreted by the placenta and state the significance of hCS, prostaglandin, oestrogens and progesterone
62. explain why oestrogens and progesterone are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy
63. outline the initiation of parturition
64. describe the neuroendocrine mechanism in the process of parturition
65. state the principles underlying the pregnancy diagnosis tests
66. define lactation
67. list the hormones acting on mammary gland and state their effects
68. outline the process of initiation of milk secretion
69. describe the milk ejection reflex
70. describe the process of maintenance of lactation
71. state the hormones which suppress lactation
72. state the factors which facilitate lactation
73. state the effect of lactation on ovarian function
74. state the ovarian changes leading to menopause
75. state the effect of lactation on the uterus
76. recall the duration of spermatogenesis
77. sketch and label a functional diagram and label the male and female reproductive organs and tract
78. state the important points in semenalysis
79. state the principles underlying testicular function tests
At the end of this unit of instruction the learner should be able to:
1. recall the functional unit of the nervous system
2. state the functional divisions of the nervous system
3. state the major functions of the nervous system
4. recall the steps in junctional transmission
5. recall the ionic basis of local potential and action potential
6. list the neurotransmitters in CNS
7. list the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in CNS
8. state the distribution / significance of following neurotransmitters in the CNS
(a) dopamine
(b) acetylcholine
(c) adrenaline
(d) noradrenaline
(e) serotonin
(f) glycine
(g) GABA
9. define sense organ, receptor cell, adequate stimulus, sensory unit and receptive field
10. state sensory adaptation and its significance
11. give two examples each of
(a) slowly adapting receptors and
(b) rapidly adapting receptors
12. state the law of specific nerve energies, law of projection and their physiological significance
13. state the mechanisms involved in discrimination of stimulus intensity
14. list the modalities of cutaneous sensation
15. list the different types of sensory endings in the skin and sensory modalities subserved by each
16. draw and label the cutaneous sensory pathways
17. state the locations of receptor for visceral senses
18. state the nature of somatic and visceral pain
19. outline the visceral pain pathway
20. define referred pain
21. state the three theories underlying the referral of pain sensation giving at least five
22. state the site where pain sensation may be gated
23. outline the process of gating at the dorsal horn
24. explain brain stimulated analgesia
25. state the chemical mediators of pain
26. explain how ischaemia produces pain
27. recall the various types of sensory nerves
28. recall the numerical and alphabetical classification of sensory and motor nerves
29. explain the terms
(a) fast pain
(b) slow pain
(c) anaesthesia
(d) analgesia
(e) hyperaesthesia
(f) phantom limb
30. state the value of pain sensation to the organism
31. state the autonomic effects associated with pain sensation
32. state the effects of stimulation of large fibre sensory nerve on pain transmission
33. define propioceptive sensation and name the receptor for propioception
34. define reflex
34. recall the components of reflex arc
35. state Bell – Magendie law
36. define monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex
37. give an example of monosynaptic reflex
38. give three examples of polysynaptic reflexes and state their importance
39. define stretch reflex
40. outline functional anatomy of muscle spindle
41. state the number of synapse ( nerve to nerve junction ) present in stretch reflex
42. draw and label the diagrammatic representation of stretch reflex
43. name the components of stretch reflex arc
44. state the interrelationship between stretch reflex and gamma efferent system
45. name the five clinical examples of stretch reflexes
46. state the root value of level of integration of the following tendon reflexes
(a) jaw jerk
(b) biceps jerk
(c) triceps jerk
(d) knee jerk
(e) ankle jerk
47. describe the control of the gamma efferent discharge
48. state the factors influencing the sensitivity of stretch reflex
49. describe the control of stretch reflex
50. state the functions of stretch reflex
51. state the importance of stretch reflex to maintain muscle tone and body posture
52. draw, describe and state the importance of
(a) reciprocal innervation
(b) inverse stretch reflex
(c) stretch reflex
53. state the functions of gamma efferent system
54. define muscle tone, flaccidity, spasticity, rigidity, lengthening reaction, clonus
explain the underlying mechanism of decerebrate rigidity
55. describe
(a) withdrawal reflex
(b) crossed extensor response
(c) irradiation of impulse
56. define motor unit, lower motor neuron, upper motor neuron, posture
57. list (a) three upper motor neuron systems
(b) lower motor neurons
58. draw and label the corticospinal tract
59. recall the functional organization and state the functions of
(a) pyramidal system
(b) extrapyramidal system
(c) thalamus
(d) spinal cord
(e) medulla oblongata
(f) midbrain
(g) basal ganglia
(h) cerebellum
60. compare and contrast upper motor neuron lesion and lower motor neuron lesion
61. list postural reflexes integrated in spinal cord, medulla oblongata, midbrain, and cerebral cortex
62. explain the terms
(a) static and
(b) phasic postural reflexes and give examples
63. state the three inputs that are required for orientation in space
64. state the functions of postural reflexes
65. define
(a) spinal animal
(b) decerebrate animal
(c) midbrain animal
(d) decorticate animal
66. explain the term spinal shock and state its duration in human
67. work out with the aids of diagram depicting ascending and descending tracts, the effects of hemisection of spinal cord at various levels ( sensory and motor changes above the level, at the level and below the level, same side and opposite side )
68. state the effects of complete transection of spinal cord
(a) immediately after transection
(b) during recovery
69. explain the term Brown-Sequard Syndrome
70. state the autonomic changes in
(a) high level transection
(b) low level transection of spinal cord
71. state the underlying mechanism and list the responses of mass reflex
72. describe the underlying mechanism involved in planning and execution of voluntary movements
73. list the cortical motor and sensory areas
74. state the importance of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia function
75. state the functions of reticular formation
76. state the functions of reticular activating system
77. explain the terms REM sleep and non REM sleep and their significance
78. outline sleep cycle in normal adult and the distribution of REM sleep and non REM sleep
79. state the functions of hypothalamus
80. recall the role of hypothalamus in
(a) thermoregulation
(b) control of hormone secretion
81. describe the regulation of food intake
82. state the lipostatic hypothesis in regulation of food intake
83. state the control of hypothalamus in
(a) appetitive behaviour
(b) biological rhythms
84. state three types of biological rhythm and give one example each
85. define appetite
86. state three types of appetitive behavior
87. explain the terms circadian rhythm and diurnal variation
88. state the sites and processes involved in formation and drainage of CSF
89. outline the circulation of CSF
90. state the functions of CSF
91. state the major physical and chemical characteristics of CSF
92. state the two differences in composition between plasma and CSF
93. state the importance of blood – brain barrier
94. state the mental and physical components of emotion
95. state the functions of limbic system
96. define
(a) learning
(b) nonassociative learning
(c) associative learning
97. define conditioned reflex
98. describe the classical conditioning experiment of Pavlov
99. explain the terms :
(a) unconditioned stimulus
(b) conditioned stimulus
(c) positive reinforcement
(d) negative reinforcement
100. give three everyday life examples of conditioned reflex
101. define memory
102. state the two main forms of memory
103. explain the terms
(a) short term or recent memory
(b) working memory
(c) remote memory
104. define aphasia and state the most common cause of aphasia
105. list the sensory modalities
106. state the role of gastrointestinal hormones in regulation of food intake
107. describe the neurophysiological basis of behaviour and its disorders
108. describe the neurophysiological basis of vision
109. describe the neurophysiological basis of audition
III. Teaching Methods
Large group Teaching
1. Didactic lectures (Regular, applied , integrated lectures)
2. Test Reviews and feedback (interactive)
Small group Teaching
1. Tutorials
2. Self-directed learning
3. Practical (emphasis on clinical examination methods)
4. Demonstrations
5. Drills (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
6. MCQ practice
7. Data collection, analysis, interpretation, seminars
Self –directed learning:
1. Electives
2. MCQs and MSQs:
Compilation (printed books);
Class Test Questions (Both MCQs and MSQs) after each test are to be taken away by the students for self practice and future reference
3. Problem – based learning (facilitated by academic staff)
4. Seminars for selected topics: preparation / presentation
IV. Teaching Media / Aids
1. Chalk board / white board
2. Overhead Projector / LCD projector (Multimedia projector)
3. P.A System
4. Wall charts
5. Display Windows
6. Live subjects (including patients)/ animals/ simulated models;
laboratory instruments
7. Textbooks, Monograph, Printed Notes and Manuals MCQs for self-
V. Assessment / Evaluation
1. Assessment tools:
Theory: Written paper
MCQs; 5 responses for each stem; minus system, not carried over,
MSQs / Short Essay type questions
2. Assessment types:
1. Class work: 300 marks
2. Summative Assessment:
Two theory papers 500 marks
Practical 200 marks
Total 1000 marks
Class work:
Average percentage of the class test scores
(theory papers and practical test) seminar performance, and other academic activities (integrated assessment scores) (to be converted to 300)

Department of Physiology, University of Medicine, Taunggyi

2nd M.B., B.S ( 1/ 2017) Time Table


8-9 am


9-10 am




11-12 noon



12-1 pm


1-2 pm


2-4 pm


3-4 pm





Lab Work – ESR, Blood Group





Lab Work- Breath sound, Lung volumes and capacities,


Ana Ana Ana Ana



Ana Ana Ana    



Lab Work – CPR,

Artificial Respiration




Ana Ana Ana BC BC BC BC




Written Tutorial




Lab Work- ECG

Ana Ana

Future Programme

၁။       Departmental Research ျပဳလုပ္ႏိုင္ရန္ ရည္ရြယ္ပါသည္။

၂။       ေက်ာင္းသူ/ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား၏ စာသင္ယူမႈ၊ ေက်ာင္းတက္မွန္ကန္မႈမ်ားကိုယခုထက္ပို၍ တိုးတက္မႈရွိေစရန္ နည္းလမ္းမ်ားရွာေဖြပါမည္။