English is taught in the first year for one academic year. The aim of the course is to develop the student’s language skills in order that they may be able to cope with their content subjects not only in the premedical and pre-clinical years but also with continuing education, including their postgraduate studies. To that end, and for effective teaching, proficiency is developed by means of small group teaching and tutorials. Self-directed learning is also encouraged through extensive extra-curricular reading.
The student is trained to listen or read and understand the nuances of a Myanmar text and speak the language fluently, to write grammatically correct sentences, and to have a basic knowledge of translation. To help the students acquire this tool for communication, the syllabus provides for writing practices in essays, precis, pamphlets and slogans, and sessions for developing verbal communication skills in giving health education talks to the general public.
The student is introduced to computing methods and techniques required for practical work and research, and trained in mathematical modeling of an interpretation of results in biological and medical sciences. The syllabus includes Functions and Real Number System, Trigonometry, Algebra, Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus, Probability & Statistics.
The aim of the course is to enable the students to understand the basic concepts and fundamental principles in Physics and apply them in their medical studies, in the use of common modern medical and dental equipment. To that end, the course introduces the student to the mechanics and properties of Matter, Heat, Sound, Light, Electricity and Radiation.
The course is an introductory to the preparatory for para-clinical and clinical studies. Thus, it includes the fundamental principles of Chemistry with a view to its application in later years, and lays a foundation for the scientific approach in medical studies. The syllabus consists of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry. The former touches on the atomic structure and chemical bonds, the gaseous state, solutions, chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, life’s essential elements, water, surface chemistry. Organic Chemistry deals with hydrocarbons, alcohol, alkyl halides, ethers, carbonyl compounds, monocarboxylic acids and derivatives of acids, amines, aromatic compounds, stereochemistry, carbohydrates, amino acid, proteins, and lipids.
The course introduces the students to the characteristics of life and living processes and how the plant world provides basic human requirements. The students also learn about medicinally important plants as they play an important role in the study of indigenous medicine. The syllabus consists of functions of living things, plant physiology, genetics, medicinal plants and vitamins, and ecology.
The course aims to enable the students to acquire knowledge of living organisms, differentiate animals to correlate the relationship between the animal and its environment and acquire prerequisite knowledge, skills and attitudes for basic medical studies and develop learning behaviour suitable for continuing medical education. The syllabus therefore includes the views of life, the kingdoms of animal life, animal behaviour, evolution and the human organism.
It covers an introduction on the history and development of medical and anatomical sciences from the days of the Greeks to the days of the 20th Century, general principles of anatomy by correlating structure and function, general anatomy, general histology, general embryology and genetics pertaining to Medicine.
The students are divided into groups of eight to twelve to dissect the human body in sequential order; starting with the thorax, followed by the abdomen and pelvis, the lower limb, the upper limb, the head and neck, and finally, the brain and spinal cord.
During dissection of each part, students are given lectures, discussions, tutorials, seminars and test relevant to the part dissected. Teaching aids on gross anatomy, histology, embryology and applied anatomy of each part simultaneously or in coordination with the parts being dissected are provided. Emphasis is laid on correlation of structure and function as well as the role of applied anatomy in clinical medicine.
After each part is dissected, the students are assessed by means of a completion test comprising a written paper, practical test and viva voce. A comprehensive revision course is given, after dissection of the whole body is completed.
Auxiliary facilities such as the anatomical museum and a compact anatomical library are available.
The course deals with physiologic principles, human physiology including cellular physiology, excitable tissues- nerve and muscle, autonomic nervous system, blood and circulation, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, reproductive, endocrine, nervous systems, skin and thermoregulation along with regulatory mechanisms.
Cellular physiology and haematology are taught during the 1st M BBS course and the rest in one year course of 2nd MBBS. Only one test is held at the end of teaching activities in 1st MBBS. It contributes to the class work of 2nd year during which 3 class tests and one practical test are conducted. Teaching method is mainly large group teaching- lecture- backed up by tutorials and practical or demonstrations. Summative assessment is held at the end of 2nd year course using MCQ and MSQ in 2 written theory papers of 3 hour duration and one practical exam.
The goal of Biochemistry course is to describe structure, organization and function of cells in molecular terms. Therefore, the course includes lectures, tutorials, discussion and laboratory work. Biochemical aspects of molecular genetics and molecular basis of function of major constituents of cells and tissues are emphasized. The metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and metabolic regulation of normal cells as well as changes occurring in diseases are discussed.
Integrated aspects of biochemistry including clinical correlation, the chemistry of blood, water and electrolytes and acid-base balance, molecular endocrinology, food and nutrition, digestion and absorption of essential nutrients are emphasized as essential aspects of biochemistry instruction.
General Pathology and Haematology
The students acquire knowledge of the pathological basis of diseases through studying gross specimens, histopathological slides, haematological slides, laboratory investigative procedures and data interpretation.
General Pathology covers the topic of response of the body to external stimuli, infectious diseases, changes in hemodynamics, neoplasia, fluid accumulations in tissues, diseases of immune origin and genetics. The lectures are supplemented by tutorials, practical demonstrations of slides and morbid specimens.
Teaching of microbiology is to acquire knowledge of basic principles of microbiology, immunology and parasitology including the nature of pathogenic microorganisms, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, transmission, prevention and control of diseases common in Myanmar.
Topics include general microbiology, systematic bacteriology, immunology, mycology, virology, public health microbiology, parasitology, entomology and applied medical microbiology. The students observe correlation between practical findings and theory.
A wide range of topics including general and systemic pharmacology is taught throughout the academic year. General principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and significant and useful aspects of drugs are taught.
The drugs are classified according to their primary actions, for example, the central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, etc. Essential drugs concept and rational use of drug are emphasized during the course.
Lectures are supplemented by small group discussion/tutorials (written and oral) which are conducted weekly; and practicals which consist of experiments illustrating certain aspects of drugs taught in the lectures and pharmacokinetic calculations.
Systemic Pathology and Haematology
The students acquire knowledge of the pathological basis and clinicopathological correlation of diseases through studying gross specimens, histopathological slides, haematological slides, autopsy findings and laboratory results.
Systemic Pathology covers diseases of body systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, urogenital, lymphoreticular, and the central nervous system, and also on diseases of breast, thyroid, bone and joints. Solving clinical problems is discussed as each system is completed. Haematology covers disorders of red cell and white cells, haemorrhagic and myeloproliferative disorders, blood groups and transfusion.
Tutorials, practical demonstrations of slides and morbid specimens support the lectures. Post-mortem teaching on autopsy findings are carried out by senior staff with rotating student groups at the major teaching hospitals.
Preventive & Social Medicine
The course is generally categorized into concept of health & social medicine, disease control, health management and administration, environmental health, general epidemiology and health and vital statistics.
They are imparted by means of lectures, tutorials, urban field visits and rural residential training.
During the one and half-month posting, the students visit the various departments, organizations and factories to acquire practical experiences, family health care visits to the selected suburban communities and hospital based clinico-social case-taking are also conducted during the posting period.
A 21 days residential rural field training is conducted to impart community based experiences to the students.
Evaluation is based upon students’ performance during the course as well as in the final examination. Class work constitutes family health care, clinico-social cases presentation & discussion, posting completion test, class assignments, class test and residential field training programme. Final examination consists of a theorypaper and an oral examination.
In handling of police cases by primary basic doctors, it is necessary to consider only matters which could be carried out without much laboratory aid and special equipment and at the same time satisfy the courts of Myanmar with correct opinions in most types of frequent and common cases.
Emphasis is therefore laid on what line of nvestigation and examination are necessary in the light of the requirement of the Myanmar Penal Code and other laws in the Myanmar Code pertaining to age, rape, murder and the management and personal identification of the victims of mass disasters in question; therefore only the essentials of investigation, keen observation, and certain useful scientific data are taught.
The teaching of medicine spans three years starting from the 3rd MBBS until the end of Final Part II.
Third year MBBS :
Two-week introduction course is given at the beginning of the posting. Then the students are posted to medical wards in teaching hospitals for 15 weeks. During this period, they learn history taking and clinical methods of examining a patient. One theory test (MCQ type) and one clinical test are conducted at the end of the posted period for evaluation.
Final Part I MBBS : During 7 weeks of training students are posted to
Mental Health Hospital (1 week)
TB hospital (1 week)
Special Skin Department (1 week)
Dermatology Department (1 week)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department(1 week) and
X-ray Session (1 week)
One theory test comprising MCQ covering all the above disciplines is given at the end of the posting period.
Final Part II MBBS :
During the block posting, morning sessions comprise bed-side teaching, ward rounds, small group discussions; and evening sessions include bed-side teaching, lectures, seminars and X-rays readings. One theory test (6 MSQs & 60 MCQs) is conducted in the middle of posting period (Mid-term test). Second theory test (6 MSQs & 60 MCQs) along with OSCE is conducted at the end of the posting period. At the final evaluation, a qualifying examination consisting of two theory papers and OSCE is held.
Surgery course spans 3 years; starting from Third M.B.,B.S. until the end of Final Part II.
Third year MBBS:
Introductory course by experienced teachers are given during the first two weeks. In the remaining (16-18) weeks, students are posted to various surgical units at the central and peripheral teaching hospitals. During this period emphasis is mainly on history taking and clinical examination of the patient. A clinical test is conducted at the end of posting.
Final Part I MBBS :
During the Part I posting students are posted to Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat Hospital and Department of Anaesthesia.
Final Part II MBBS :
Surgical block posting is 11 – 12 weeks. This posting is known as “Block Posting” since the students are posted at the wards for the whole day. This enables the students to perform clinical case taking, plan investigation, interpret data and become involved in the management of common surgical conditions. Teaching includes combined clinics, bed-side teaching, topic discussion, seminars & case presentations. It covers general surgery and special surgical fields such as vascular, thoracic, cardiac, endocrine, abdominal, ano-rectal, hepato-biliary, genito-urinary, eye, ear, nose, throat and maxillo-facial surgery. Some aspects of general anaesthesiology are also covered. Traumatology and basic operative surgery are emphasized.
The final examination includes 2 papers on theory and clinical examination (Objective Structured Clinical Examination).
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The course lasts for two years starting from the Final Part I and continues until the end of Final Part II. Most of the Obstetrics is covered in Final Part I and Gynaecology in Final Part II.
Final Part I MBBS :
Clinical posting is of two months duration in Obstetric Units. In the first part of the posting, students witness intrapartum care and delivery of twenty labour cases. Following an oral assessment test, they are allowed to conduct ten normal deliveries under the supervision of either the teaching staff of the Obstetric & Gynaecology department, the assistant surgeon on duty or the senior midwifery staff. They are responsible for the immediate care of the newborn and also assist in operative deliveries. The care of mothers and babies is followed up in the puerperium. They also attend out-patient clinics and clinical bed-side teachings.
The important topics in obstetrics include antenatal care, normal labour and puerperium, haemorrhage in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy and medical diseases in pregnancy, etc. Assessment includes a complete record of deliveries, a three-hour multiple short questions and objective structured clinical examination of an obstetric case with emphasis on history taking and physical examination. The marks thus gained contributes toward the scores in the Final Part II examination.
Final Part II MBBS :
The students are posted en-bloc to both obstetric and gynaecological wards for three months. Training includes clinical clerkship, out-patient department sessions, clinical bed-side teaching, attending operating sessions, lectures and tutorials. The seminars are conducted by the students. The important topics in gynaeacology include gynaecological tumours, bleeding in early pregnancy, abnormal haemorrage etc.
Each student submits complete records of 5 obstetric and 5 gynaecogical cases and sits for tests on theory, clinical and viva voce. The marks thus scored contribute towards the total marks in the final examination which includes obstetric and gynaecology theory papers and an objective structured clinical examination at two obstetric and two gynaecological stations.
The course lasts for two years starting from the Final Part I and continues until the end of Final Part II. Pediatric teaching is confined mainly to hospital practice, with community orientation and exposure to community health centres, coordinated with Mandalay Divisional Health Department and Department of Preventive & Social Medicine of the University of Medicine, Mandalay.
The important topics in Pediatrics include developmental pediatrics, preventive and social pediatrics, neonatology, pediatric emergencies, common childhood disorders and infections. Emphasis is laid on common health problems of our country, e.g., acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases, dengue haemorrhagic fever, malaria, neonatal sepsis and jaundice, malnutrition, and care of the normal and sick children, Knowledge and skill in pediatrics is imparted by lectures, seminars, bedside teaching, tutorials, problem solving, and small group teaching during the final years part I and II.
One theory test (40 MCQs) and a clinical test (OSCE) are conducted at the end of Final part I posting. During the block posting in final year part II, one theory test (5 MSQs and 60 MCQs) and one clinical test (OSCE) is conducted at mid-term and the second theory paper (5 MSQs and 60 MCQs) along with a clinical (OSCE) test is conducted at the end of posting period.
At the final evaluation, a qualifying examination consisting of two theory papers (5 MSQs and 60 MCQs each) and a clinical test (OSCE) is held.